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CaFE designed 16 topically complementary research projects covering four core research areas:

Work Package 1

To simulate fundamental aspects of bubble dynamics and induced erosion from ‘first principles’. Four areas of research are envisioned here: (a) DNS on bubble clusters, (b) coupled fluid-structure and material deformation simulations, (b) FEM simulations of material fatigue when exposed to successive bubble collapses and (d) bubble dynamics models that include mass and heat transfer between the collapsing bubble and the surrounding fluid, gas content and chemical reactions realised inside the bubble.

Work Package 2

To design novel portable test rigs and perform quantitative flow measurements that link simultaneously the cavitating fluid flow field with the erosion sites. Three experiments have been planned: (a) flows in orifices, (b) flows in narrow passages occurring during the opening/closing stages of mechanical heart valves and (c) cavitating vortices. Time resolved measurement techniques include: velocity flow field (SPIV), cavitation volume fraction (phase contrast using high energy x-rays), high speed flow visualisation and wall pressures.

Work Package 3

To develop/extend LES and URANS methodologies required for the simulation of cavitating flows and surface erosion indication at macroscopic (engineering) level. Relevant methodologies to be developed include (a) an LES model using a barotropic model, (b) an LES using a DNS-derived SGS model, (c) a surface erosion model based on the energy-cascade and (d) a cavitation-BEM model for cases of mechanical heart valves. The models will be validated against existing and the new experimental data of WP2.

Work Package 4

To apply the validated models to cases of industrial interest as specified by the non-academic beneficiaries and partners, aiming to implement them as design tools to industrial practice. Applications selected include (a) cavitating vortices in Kaplan hydraulic turbines, (b) marine propellers, (c) cavitation in high pressure Diesel fuel injectors valves and (d) gear pumps utilised in the aviation industry.


  1. CaFE developed a training programme for the recruited fellows, which covered: individual personalized research projects (within the framework of the topic of this proposal) that led to their PhDs; specialized training courses offered by the participating institutions; network-wide training activities in the format of seminar, workshop, conference and summer school; knowledge exchange with the members of the network through activities such as secondments and events; engagement with public actions (Work Package 5)
  2. CaFE managed the proposed programme according to the guidelines of the Marie- Curie actions and has started disseminating the knowledge that it acquired through publications in international conferences and leading scientific journals. (Work Package 6)